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Pacific Angel Shark

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The Pacific angelshark is primarily a visual hunter; experiments in nature show that they strike at fish-shaped targets without any electrical, chemical, vibrational, or behavioral cues. At night, they are guided by the bioluminescence of planktonic dinoflagellates and ostracods disturbed by moving prey. [17] This species' visual system is attuned to the wavelengths of light emitted by these planktonic organisms, showing the importance of night hunting. Pacific angelsharks are more likely to strike at prey approaching from the front. [10] It usually waits until the prey approaches to 15 cm (5. 9 in), as its attack is less accurate beyond this distance. [3] The strike is a stereotyped behavior in which the shark presses the forward lobes of its pectoral fins against the bottom and thrusts its head upwards at up to a 90° angle. Its mouth forms a tube when opened, creating a suction force, while its jaws protude forward to secure the prey between sharp teeth. During the strike, the eyes roll backward into the head for protection. The strike is often completed in under a tenth of a second. [10]